The parboil process causes a gelatinisation of the starch in the grains. The grains become less brittle, and the colour of the milled grain changes from white to yellow. The rice is then dried, and can then be milled as usual or used as brown rice. Milled parboiled rice is nutritionally superior to standard milled rice (other than its vitamin-B content, which is denatured). These processes also make rice easier to process by hand but changes the texture. Parboiled rice has an additional benefit in that it does not stick to the pan during cooking, as happens when cooking regular white rice. This type of rice is eaten in parts of India and countries of West Africa are also accustomed to consuming parboiled rice.
About 50% of the world’s paddy production is parboiled . The treatment is practiced in many parts of the world such as India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Myanmar, Malaysia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Guinea, South Africa, Italy, Spain, Thailand, Switzerland, USA and France.
Parboiling drives nutrients, especially thiamine, from the bran to endosperm, hence parboiled white rice is 80% nutritionally similar to brown rice.
Nutrients and the nutritional importance of rice
A detailed analysis of nutrient content of rice suggests that the nutrition value of rice varies based on a number of factors. It depends on the strain of rice, that is between white, brown, black, red and purple varieties of rice – each prevalent in different parts of the world. It also depends on nutrient quality of the soil rice is grown in, whether and how the rice is polished or processed, the manner it is enriched, and how it is prepared before consumption.
An illustrative comparison between white and brown rice of protein quality, mineral and vitamin quality, carbohydrate and fat quality suggests that neither is a complete nutrition source. Between the two, there is a significant difference in fibre content and minor differences in other nutrients.
Brilliantly coloured rice strains such as the purple rice derives its colour from anthocyanins and tocols. Scientific studies suggest that these colour pigments have antioxidant properties that may be useful to human health. In purple rice bran, hydrophilic antioxidants are in greater quantity and have higher free radical scavenging activity than lipophilic antioxidants. Anthocyanins and γ-tocols in purple rice are largely located in the inner portion of purple rice bran.
Comparative nutrition studies on red, black and white varieties of rice suggest that pigments in red and black rice varieties may offer nutrition benefits. Red or black rice consumption was found to reduce or retard the progression of atherosclerotic plaque development, induced by dietary cholesterol, in mammals. White rice consumption offered no similar benefits, and the study claims this to be due to absent antioxidants in red and black varieties of rice.
|% Daily Value*|
|Total fat 0.9g||1%|
|Saturated fat 0.2g||1%|
|Polyunsaturated fat 0.3g|
|Monounsaturated fat 0.3g|
|Total Carbohydrate 23g||7%|
|Dietary fiber 1.8g||7%|
|Sugar 0.4 g|
|Protein 2.6 g||5%|
|Vitamin A||0%||Vitamin C||0%|
|Vitamin B-6||5%||Vitamin B-12||0%|
|* Broken (max.)||: 5%|
|* Moisture (max.)||: 14.5%|
|* Foreign Matters (max.)||: 0.1%|
|* Damaged kernels (max.)||: 0.75%|
|* Yellow kernels (max.)||: 0.75%|
|* Average grain length (min)||: 6.6 mm|
|* Mixed rice (max.)||: 15%|
|* Chalky kernel (max.)||: 4.0 %|
|* Paddy (max.)||: 10|
|* Crop||: New crop|
|* Milling degree: Double polished and Sortexed|
|* Other specifications as per official vietnam rice Export Standards|